What are EPDs?
“An Environmental Product Declaration is a standardized report (developed in accordance with ISO 14025) outlining the results of data collected in a life cycle assessment (LCA) that must contain information as defined in a product category rule (PCR),” Oorbeck said. Or, simplified, “EPDs are often compared to a nutrition facts panel for a product’s environmental performance.”
Lasso added, “EPDs are there to transparently present the environmental impacts of a product from cradle to grave, across the entire value chain. We’re quantifying everything that goes in—energy, water, materials—and everything that comes out: emissions to land, air, and water.”
She continued in explaining that the history of LCAs is rooted in studying a common question: Which products are environmentally preferable? Consider cloth or disposable diapers. As one of the first studies done in the late 1970s to early 80s, the thought was that cloth would be better environmentally. However, once figuring in all of the aspects—from petroleum refining to the energy needed to heat the water in order to correctly launder the cloth diapers—a different story began to arise.
How do manufacturers use EPDs?
The use of EPDs today in the A+D community follows that same mindset as the studies on diapers. “[An EPD is] different in that it’s absent of a value judgement,” Lasso said. However, while an EPD doesn’t state whether something is intrinsically good or intrinsically bad, “the value of EPDs lies in the fact that companies are measuring their environmental impact. You can’t manage what you aren’t measuring.”
Furthermore, Oorbeck said, “With an LCA, a manufacturer can benchmark the performance of alternative materials, product designs, or packaging systems to identify best performance, lowest environmental impact, and money-saving scenarios. EPDs allow manufacturers to provide transparency about their product attributes to help end users make informed environmental purchasing decisions.”
How should the A+D community use EPDs?
It’s this transparency that makes EPDs so valuable to the A+D community as LEED v4 becomes more prominent. New sustainability efforts will look beyond previous criteria to the full life cycle of a product, which means knowing more about the background of the product.
Can someone adequately compare EPDs?
“Right now, EPDs are largely seen as just checking a box; ‘OK, we did this, we qualify for LEED or other green building scheme points,’” Lasso noted. While the eventual goal is to be able to compare two products by two different companies using EPDs, and there are current PCRs that exist for their creation so there is some consistency, “they only go so far in being prescriptive on how you do your study.”
As an example, Lasso said UL Environment had two third-party analysts study the same product by the same manufacturer, and found the results came back with a difference of up to 300 percent.
One reason lies in the fact that while EPDs may follow particular ISO rules and PCRs, the background research—how, where, and when the upstream petroleum production was collected and aggregated, for example, or how water use was measured—are not currently consistent between different LCA background datasets. This means one company might use a different background dataset than another, meaning its EPDs cannot be comparable because of that underlying variation.
That doesn’t mean the numbers lack substance or importance. While datasets between companies are not standardized at the moment, they tend to be within a particular company, making them a strong indicator of how a manufacturer is doing within its own product lines. “They can learn the hot spots and begin to address mitigating,” Lasso pointed out.
Similarly, it’s important for designers to embrace EPDs, particularly as they become a more globalized standard of measurement. When designers understand what goes into a product, they’re able to make more informed decisions and hold manufacturers to a higher expectation that they are doing what they can to address issues in their products’ life cycles.